As a multi-dimensional social process, migration affects all stakeholders: sending countries, receiving countries, and migrants themselves. The concept of sustainable migration seeks to balance the interests of all of the actors involved in order to make the impact of migration sustainable. It is particularly important in the era of globalization, with societies interconnected in multiple ways. The majority of social and economic challenges require global solutions.
In the literature, one may often find negative effects of ”unsustainable” migration. One of
the most adverse effects of migration is referred to as brain drain, i.e. the migration of highly qualified employees to higher-income countries offering better professional development opportunities and a higher standard of living. As a result, a sending country loses valuable human capital, which clearly reduces its development potential.
Another effect of unsustainable migration may be termed care drain. Aging Western societies are in need of an ever-increasing number of care workers. There are many women-migrants working in the sector, which requires that their children and elderly parents residing in
the sending country be provided with care.
The concept of sustainable migration is linked to the triple win migration approach, with the whole migration route taken into account. Reducing the costs and representing the interests of all the parties involved, including countries of origin, countries of destination, and migrants themselves, are of paramount importance.
Various actors and sectors need to engage in international cooperation in order to coordinate migration policies, to exchange good practices, and to ensure decent living conditions for migrants and their families, both in sending and receiving countries. Education and scientific research are essential for sustainable development, including sustainable migrations. Universities cooperate with the public and private sectors, thereby co-creating knowledge used to generate new solutions.